Scam Broker Investigator • TR Binary Options Review

10-22 16:24 - 'To iterate: I don't buy your binary premise that there is only two options (either only the Europeans are to blame or only the Africans are to blame). I did not appeal to my authority, I did not say something was tr...' by /u/LateInTheAfternoon removed from /r/history within 99-109min

'''
To iterate: I don't buy your binary premise that there is only two options (either only the Europeans are to blame or only the Africans are to blame). I did not appeal to my authority, I did not say something was true just because I said so. In fact, I only acknowledged a discrepancy between what the two of us know (a discrepancy which admittedly only might exist for that precise region and that precise time frame for all I know) and detailed why I had chosen those specific words and what I intended to convey by them. This is not appeal to authority! I have to conclude that you're a troll and that we're done here. If you want to quibble about literal meanings of words at the expense of the larger picture, refuse to answer questions when asked, and to assume everyone shares your binary way of looking on things then you'll have to find someone else to engage with. As for "my"
theory for why Africans (including warlords who reigned supreme while not ruling) didn't do anything to help slavery except when forced to by evil Europeans
this is the most inane mischaracterisation of my arguments I have ever seen, and I will as a reminder state my real theory opinion which I have argumented for in this whole thread:
There's plenty of blame to go around and both European agents and African leaders and collaborators will be the targets. However, generally speaking and over a long time, more blame is to be apportioned to Europeans and less blame is to be apportioned to Africans, because of the different situations these people could act as moral agents. When, for instance, you consider what motivated the different actors you'll find it is easier to criticize the Europeans because of the greed that drove them and their disrespect for local authority, costums and law, than it is to criticize the African elites and communities which found themselves in a situation of societies and trade networks crumbling around them and was motivated to a lesser extent by greed and more by self preservation, which in many cases (directly or indirectly) dictated the necessity of them to collaborate.
There you have my real opinion and not your bad representation of it. And please take note of the words "many", "most", "to a larger degree", because by using them I'm negating all claims of "all", "every" and "entirely". We're done here, have a good day.
'''
Context Link
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: LateInTheAfternoon
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

I'm reading every Hugo, Nebula, Locus, and World Fantasy Award winner. Here's my reviews of the up to 1980 (Vol 4)

It is that time once more, folks.
Links to previous posts at the end, links to full length blog reviews are all in one comment.
Man Plus by Frederik Pohl
Where Late the Sweet Birds Sang by Kate Wilhelm
Doctor Rat by William Kotzwinkle
Gateway by Frederik Pohl
The Silmarillion by J. R. R. Tolkien
Our Lady of Darkness by Fritz Leiber
Dreamsnake by Vonda N. McIntyre
Gloriana, or The Unfulfill'd Queen by Michael Moorcock
The Fountains of Paradise by Arthur C. Clarke
The Riddle-Master Trilogy by Patricia A. McKillip
Watchtower by Elizabeth A. Lynn
Titan by John Varley
If you haven’t seen the others:
Any questions or comments? Fire away!
A truly massive thank you to u/gremdel for mailing me a bunch of books! People like you are what make this endeavor worth the effort.
I’ve been using this spreadsheet, as well as a couple others that kind Redditors have sent. So a huge thanks to u/velzerat and u/BaltSHOWPLACE
At the request of a number of you, I’ve written up extended reviews of everything and made a blog for them. I’ve included the links with the posts for individual books. I try to put up new reviews as fast as I read them. Take a look in the comments for that link!
The Bechdel Test is a simple question: do two named female characters converse about something other than a man. Whether or not a book passes is not a condemnation so much as an observation; it provides an easy binary marker. Seems like a good way to see how writing has evolved over the years. At the suggestion of some folks, I’m loosening it to non-male identified characters to better capture some of the ways that science fiction tackles sex and gender. For a better explanation of why it’s useful, check out this comment from u/Gemmabeta
submitted by RabidFoxz to books [link] [comments]

HonestT Survey Results!

We had 221 responses, which is about 7% of our user base (~3100). In total, that gives us a 6.35% margin of error at 95% confidence. Which is to say, the results aren't super scientific so take it with a grain of salt lol. I'm sure we have some biases in that more active members of this sub were more likely to respond, etc. so this is more of an informal fun thing than science.
You can view a pretty version of the results with all the data here. It'll break it down with charts and it's very pretty to look at. Since Google did all the hard work for me there, I'm just going to let y'all look at that and talk about some of the more interesting things here.
Some highlights of the data:
Any thoughts or surprises? Feel free to discuss below!
submitted by lily_of_the_ditch to honesttransgender [link] [comments]

Strategy Tester Tradingview

So basically this is my strategy (testing it for binary options)
// Version 0 - Created by UCS_Gears
// Version 1 - Modified by Chris Moody "Added B/S"
// Version 2 - Modified by UCS_Gears, "Replaced B/S with arrows", "Ability to change Overbought / Oversold Levels"

strategy(title="DMI Stochastic Extreme", shorttitle="DMI-Stochastic", overlay=false)
// Wells Wilders MA
wwma(l,p) =>
wwma = (nz(wwma[1]) * (l - 1) + p) / l

// Inputs
DMIlength = input(10, title = "DMI Length")
Stolength = input(3, title = "Stochastic Length")
Oversold = input(10, title = "Oversold")
Overbought = input(90, title="Overbought")

// DMI Osc Calc
hiDiff = high - high[1]
loDiff = low[1] - low
plusDM = (hiDiff > loDiff) and (hiDiff > 0) ? hiDiff : 0
minusDM = (loDiff > hiDiff) and (loDiff > 0) ? loDiff : 0
ATR = wwma(DMIlength, tr)
PlusDI = 100 * wwma(DMIlength,plusDM) / ATR
MinusDI = 100 * wwma(DMIlength,minusDM) / ATR
osc = PlusDI - MinusDI

// DMI Stochastic Calc
hi = highest(osc, Stolength)
lo = lowest(osc, Stolength)
Stoch = sum((osc-lo),Stolength) / sum((hi-lo),Stolength) *100
plot(Stoch, color = gray, title = 'Stochastic', linewidth = 2, style = line)

crossUp = Stoch[1] < Oversold and Stoch > Oversold ? 1 : 0
crossDown = Stoch[1] > Overbought and Stoch < Overbought ? 1 : 0

plot (Overbought, color = red, linewidth = 1, title = 'Over Bought')
plot (Oversold, color = green, linewidth = 1, title = 'Over Sold')

plotchar(crossUp, title="Crossing Up", char='↑', location=location.bottom, color=aqua, transp=0, offset=0)
plotchar(crossDown, title="Crossing Down",char='↓', offset=0, location=location.top, color=aqua, transp=0)


strategy.entry("Call", strategy.long, when = crossUp == true)
strategy.entry("Put", strategy.short, when = crossDown == true )

strategy.close("Put", when = barstate.isnew)
strategy.close("Call", when = barstate.isnew)
its supposed to go in at a crossdown hold for 1 candle and then close the trade and vice versa but the thing is if for example I get a 40% winrate with it I should get a 60% winrate if I just reverse the settings but instead I get a 45% winrate
submitted by PresentationOk5418 to algotrading [link] [comments]

Composition Challenge #25: September 14, 2020 – Sonata Form, Part 1: Exposition

Greetings, /musictheory! Welcome to our composition challenge. This is a space to put theory into practice by writing your own original music. An archive of all composition challenges, past and present, can be found in the wiki.
This challenge thread will be stickied from September 14 through October 5.

Rules

The emphasis here is on skill acquisition. In order to build a knowledge base that will enable you to engage with the larger corpus of music theory and analysis, observe the following:
  1. Submissions must include standard notation. If you don't know how to read or write with standard notation, consult a music theory textbook or websites such as https://www.musictheory.net/ or http://teoria.com/.
  2. Satisfy all items on the challenge prompt. There is always room to write in excess of the prompt, but you should solve the compositional problems given in the challenge.
  3. Post submissions as replies to this thread.
  4. There is no deadline to submit and we encourage you to explore these prompts whenever you feel like it. However, know that challenge threads will be un-stickied and will receive less attention after the first Monday of the next month.

Challenge

Compose a two-part sonata form exposition for piano. (The next challenge will involve crafting a development section and recapitulation, so don't worry about the rest of the form just yet.)
  • Use the formal scheme P TR MC S C. (See theory section for details.)
  • If P is in the major mode, S should be in the dominant key.
  • If P is in the minor mode, S should be in the relative major key or the minor dominant key.
  • Use periods and/or sentences as the basis of your P and S themes.
  • Use a linear intervallic pattern (LIP) somewhere in your exposition.

Theory

Sonata Theory

This challenge uses terminology and concepts from James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy's landmark treatise, Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types, and Deformations in the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata. You will construct a Type-3 sonata, as this is what most sources mean when they say "sonata form." This is your Exposition/Development/Recapitulation model, where a tonal and rhetorical problem is set up in the exposition and eventually worked out by the time the recapitulation rolls around.
This is what a two-part exposition looks like. You will be composing one of these. Observe the tonal plan and arrangement of items. And here is a zoomed out vie of a Type-3 Sonata Form. (Both diagrams are from page 17 of Hepokoski & Darcy's book.)
Abbreviation Definition
P Primary Theme The first theme and the beginning of sonata space; sets the feel for the movement.
TR Transition Facilitates the modulation from the home key to the new key in the exposition. Recomposed in the recapitulation so that it doesn't modulate. Builds energy.
MC Medial Caesura A cadence followed by a rest that separates TR from S.
S Secondary Theme Structurally and sometimes rhetorically opposes P.
EEC Essential Expositional Closure The cadential goal of an exposition. The first cadence after S in the expo.
ESC Essential Structural Closure The cadential goal of a recapitulation and of the whole movement. The first cadence after S in the recap.
C Closing Zone Postcadential material that follows S and concludes a rotation of sonata space. May be as little as a small codetta, may include a genuine closing theme, may have several modules.
Thematic areas may contain more than one "theme," but for this exercise try to focus on producing one really good P theme and one really good S theme.
Videos:

Sentences & Periods

Linear Intervallic Patterns & Sequences

Linear intervallic patterns are voice-leading patterns that prolong a harmony and possibly bridge the space between two structural chords. Sequences are built upon LIPs, but not all LIPs are sequences.

Examples

  • The primary theme and transition of Mozart's C major piano sonata, K.545, contains a sequence/LIP. Analysis. Note that P is a sentence ending on a half-cadence (with the continuation prolonged by its merger with TR). These things don't have to be long; the total path from P to the MC only takes 12 measures in this sonata.
  • Beethoven - Piano Sonata No. 19, Op.49, No.1, I. / Score – P is a modulating period (with a sentential antecedent!), where the consequent also acts as the TR. There is no MC here (rather, it is filled in — called "caesura fill"). The S theme is a parallel period beginning at m.16; the consequent begins at m.21 and goes to m.25, but then consequent repeats (what Janet Schmalfeldt calls the "one more time" technique), so the resolution happens at the downbeat of m.29. The C zone is just 4 measures with a pickup, from mm.30-33 (derived from the beginning of S). Also, if you're following the video, the score is Heinrich Schenker's edition, which inexplicably has the measure numbers at the end of the measure, making it look like the measure numbers are one bar off from where they should be.
  • Marianne von Martinez – Piano Sonata No. 3 in E Major / Score — Kind of a cool thing going on here. Here is the exposition analyzed. First off, notice that there are two themes in the S group: one is a sentence (S1), the other is a period (S2). S2 elides with the beginning of the Closing Zone, and C itself is basically the material of P and TR transposed into the dominant key. It's a little unusual but not unheard of. This movement is actually a Type-2 Sonata Form (the so-called "binary" sonata form), but since we're only looking at the exposition, that doesn't matter so much for us right now. However, the fact that the C zone is so P/TR-based plays into the rotational nature of the Type-2.
  • Joseph Haydn – Keyboard Sonata in E minor, Hob.XVI:34/ Score – Here's one in the minor mode. Here is the exposition analyzed. The P theme is a parallel period with a modulation. I'm not really sure what the TR is supposed to be doing here, since it's basically just hanging out in the new key the entire time. It's interesting to note that in the recapitulation, P and TR are chopped up and put back together as the presentation and continuation of a sentence respectively. (And I'm sure there are other interpretations.) I have the theme type for S identified as a "phrase group," which John David White in The Analysis of Music defines as such: "A group of three or more phrases linked together without the two-part feeling of a period can be termed a phrase-group. Phrase-group is also the appropriate label for a pair of consecutive phrases in which the first is a repetition of the second or in which, for whatever reason, the antecedent-consequent relationship is absent (46)." In this case, we are dealing with the last option.

Notation Resources

You can find links to a variety of notation programs in the wiki.
submitted by Xenoceratops to musictheory [link] [comments]

MAME 0.222

MAME 0.222

MAME 0.222, the product of our May/June development cycle, is ready today, and it’s a very exciting release. There are lots of bug fixes, including some long-standing issues with classics like Bosconian and Gaplus, and missing pan/zoom effects in games on Seta hardware. Two more Nintendo LCD games are supported: the Panorama Screen version of Popeye, and the two-player Donkey Kong 3 Micro Vs. System. New versions of supported games include a review copy of DonPachi that allows the game to be paused for photography, and a version of the adult Qix game Gals Panic for the Taiwanese market.
Other advancements on the arcade side include audio circuitry emulation for 280-ZZZAP, and protection microcontroller emulation for Kick and Run and Captain Silver.
The GRiD Compass series were possibly the first rugged computers in the clamshell form factor, possibly best known for their use on NASA space shuttle missions in the 1980s. The initial model, the Compass 1101, is now usable in MAME. There are lots of improvements to the Tandy Color Computer drivers in this release, with better cartridge support being a theme. Acorn BBC series drivers now support Solidisk file system ROMs. Writing to IMD floppy images (popular for CP/M computers) is now supported, and a critical bug affecting writes to HFE disk images has been fixed. Software list additions include a collection of CDs for the SGI MIPS workstations.
There are several updates to Apple II emulation this month, including support for several accelerators, a new IWM floppy controller core, and support for using two memory cards simultaneously on the CFFA2. As usual, we’ve added the latest original software dumps and clean cracks to the software lists, including lots of educational titles.
Finally, the memory system has been optimised, yielding performance improvements in all emulated systems, you no longer need to avoid non-ASCII characters in paths when using the chdman tool, and jedutil supports more devices.
There were too many HyperScan RFID cards added to the software list to itemise them all here. You can read about all the updates in the whatsnew.txt file, or get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]

MAME 0.222

MAME 0.222

MAME 0.222, the product of our May/June development cycle, is ready today, and it’s a very exciting release. There are lots of bug fixes, including some long-standing issues with classics like Bosconian and Gaplus, and missing pan/zoom effects in games on Seta hardware. Two more Nintendo LCD games are supported: the Panorama Screen version of Popeye, and the two-player Donkey Kong 3 Micro Vs. System. New versions of supported games include a review copy of DonPachi that allows the game to be paused for photography, and a version of the adult Qix game Gals Panic for the Taiwanese market.
Other advancements on the arcade side include audio circuitry emulation for 280-ZZZAP, and protection microcontroller emulation for Kick and Run and Captain Silver.
The GRiD Compass series were possibly the first rugged computers in the clamshell form factor, possibly best known for their use on NASA space shuttle missions in the 1980s. The initial model, the Compass 1101, is now usable in MAME. There are lots of improvements to the Tandy Color Computer drivers in this release, with better cartridge support being a theme. Acorn BBC series drivers now support Solidisk file system ROMs. Writing to IMD floppy images (popular for CP/M computers) is now supported, and a critical bug affecting writes to HFE disk images has been fixed. Software list additions include a collection of CDs for the SGI MIPS workstations.
There are several updates to Apple II emulation this month, including support for several accelerators, a new IWM floppy controller core, and support for using two memory cards simultaneously on the CFFA2. As usual, we’ve added the latest original software dumps and clean cracks to the software lists, including lots of educational titles.
Finally, the memory system has been optimised, yielding performance improvements in all emulated systems, you no longer need to avoid non-ASCII characters in paths when using the chdman tool, and jedutil supports more devices.
There were too many HyperScan RFID cards added to the software list to itemise them all here. You can read about all the updates in the whatsnew.txt file, or get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

submitted by cuavas to MAME [link] [comments]

Step-by-Step Guide for Adding a Stack, Expanding Control Lines, and Building an Assembler

After the positive response to my first tutorial on expanding the RAM, I thought I'd continue the fun by expanding the capabilities of Ben's 8-bit CPU even further. That said, you'll need to have done the work in the previous post to be able to do this. You can get a sense for what we'll do in this Imgur gallery.
In this tutorial, we'll balance software and hardware improvements to make this a pretty capable machine:

Parts List

To only update the hardware, you'll need:
If you want to update the toolchain, you'll need:
  1. Arduino Mega 2560 (Amazon) to create the programmer.
  2. Ribbon Jumper Cables (Amazon) to connect the Arduino to the breadboard.
  3. TL866 II Plus EEPROM Programmer (Amazon) to program the ROM.
Bonus Clock Improvement: One additional thing I did is replace the 74LS04 inverter in Ben's clock circuit with a 74LS14 inverting Schmitt trigger (datasheet, Jameco). The pinouts are identical! Just drop it in, wire the existing lines, and then run the clock output through it twice (since it's inverting) to get a squeaky clean clock signal. Useful if you want to go even faster with the CPU.

Step 1: Program with an Arduino and Assembler (Image 1, Image 2)

There's a certain delight in the physical programming of a computer with switches. This is how Bill Gates and Paul Allen famously programmed the Altair 8800 and started Microsoft. But at some point, the hardware becomes limited by how effectively you can input the software. After upgrading the RAM, I quickly felt constrained by how long it took to program everything.
You can continue to program the computer physically if you want and even after upgrading that option is still available, so this step is optional. There's probably many ways to approach the programming, but this way felt simple and in the spirit of the build. We'll use an Arduino Mega 2560, like the one in Ben's 6502 build, to program the RAM. We'll start with a homemade assembler then switch to something more robust.
Preparing the Physical Interface
The first thing to do is prepare the CPU to be programmed by the Arduino. We already did the hard work on this in the RAM upgrade tutorial by using the bus to write to the RAM and disconnecting the control ROM while in program mode. Now we just need to route the appropriate lines to a convenient spot on the board to plug the Arduino into.
  1. This is optional, but I rewired all the DIP switches to have ground on one side, rather than alternating sides like Ben's build. This just makes it easier to route wires.
  2. Wire the 8 address lines from the DIP switch, connecting the side opposite to ground (the one going to the chips) to a convenient point on the board. I put them on the far left, next to the address LEDs and above the write button circuit.
  3. Wire the 8 data lines from the DIP switch, connecting the side opposite to ground (the one going to the chips) directly below the address lines. Make sure they're separated by the gutter so they're not connected.
  4. Wire a line from the write button to your input area. You want to connect the side of the button that's not connected to ground (the one going to the chip).
So now you have one convenient spot with 8 address lines, 8 data lines, and a write line. If you want to get fancy, you can wire them into some kind of connector, but I found that ribbon jumper cables work nicely and keep things tidy.
The way we'll program the RAM is to enter program mode and set all the DIP switches to the high position (e.g., 11111111). Since the switches are upside-down, this means they'll all be disconnected and not driving to ground. The address and write lines will simply be floating and the data lines will be weakly pulled up by 1k resistors. Either way, the Arduino can now drive the signals going into the chips using its outputs.
Creating the Arduino Programmer
Now that we can interface with an Arduino, we need to write some software. If you follow Ben's 6502 video, you'll have all the knowledge you need to get this working. If you want some hints and code, see below (source code):
  1. Create arrays for your data and address lines. For example: const char ADDRESS_LINES[] = {39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53};. Create your write line with #define RAM_WRITE 3.
  2. Create functions to enable and disable your address and data lines. You want to enable them before writing. Make sure to disable them afterward so that you can still manually program using DIP switches without disconnecting the Arduino. The code looks like this (just change INPUT to OUTPUT accordingly): for(int n = 0; n < 8; n += 1) { pinMode(ADDRESS_LINES[n], OUTPUT); }
  3. Create a function to write to an address. It'll look like void writeData(byte writeAddress, byte writeData) and basically use two loops, one for address and one for data, followed by toggling the write.
  4. Create a char array that contains your program and data. You can use #define to create opcodes like #define LDA 0x01.
  5. In your main function, loop through the program array and send it through writeData.
With this setup, you can now load multi-line programs in a fraction of a second! This can really come in handy with debugging by stress testing your CPU with software. Make sure to test your setup with existing programs you know run reliably. Now that you have your basic setup working, you can add 8 additional lines to read the bus and expand the program to let you read memory locations or even monitor the running of your CPU.
Making an Assembler
The above will serve us well but it's missing a key feature: labels. Labels are invaluable in assembly because they're so versatile. Jumps, subroutines, variables all use labels. The problem is that labels require parsing. Parsing is a fun project on the road to a compiler but not something I wanted to delve into right now--if you're interested, you can learn about Flex and Bison. Instead, I found a custom assembler that lets you define your CPU's instruction set and it'll do everything else for you. Let's get it setup:
  1. If you're on Windows, you can use the pre-built binaries. Otherwise, you'll need to install Rust and compile via cargo build.
  2. Create a file called 8bit.cpu and define your CPU instructions (source code). For example, LDA would be lda {address} -> 0x01 @ address[7:0]. What's cool is you can also now create the instruction's immediate variant instead of having to call it LDI: lda #{value} -> 0x05 @ value[7:0].
  3. You can now write assembly by adding #include "8bit.cpu" to the top of your code. There's a lot of neat features so make sure to read the documentation!
  4. Once you've written some assembly, you can generate the machine code using ./customasm yourprogram.s -f hexc -p. This prints out a char array just like our Arduino program used!
  5. Copy the char array into your Arduino program and send it to your CPU.
At this stage, you can start creating some pretty complex programs with ease. I would definitely play around with writing some larger programs. I actually found a bug in my hardware that was hidden for a while because my programs were never very complex!

Step 2: Expand the Control Lines (Image)

Before we can expand the CPU any further, we have to address the fact we're running out of control lines. An easy way to do this is to add a 3rd 28C16 ROM and be on your way. If you want something a little more involved but satisfying, read on.
Right now the control lines are one hot encoded. This means that if you have 4 lines, you can encode 4 states. But we know that a 4-bit binary number can encode 16 states. We'll use this principle via 74LS138 decoders, just like Ben used for the step counter.
Choosing the Control Line Combinations
Everything comes with trade-offs. In the case of combining control lines, it means the two control lines we choose to combine can never be activated at the same time. We can ensure this by encoding all the inputs together in the first 74LS138 and all the outputs together in a second 74LS138. We'll keep the remaining control lines directly connected.
Rewiring the Control Lines
If your build is anything like mine, the control lines are a bit of a mess. You'll need to be careful when rewiring to ensure it all comes back together correctly. Let's get to it:
  1. Place the two 74LS138 decoders on the far right side of the breadboard with the ROMs. Connect them to power and ground.
  2. You'll likely run out of inverters, so place a 74LS04 on the breadboard above your decoders. Connect it to power and ground.
  3. Carefully take your inputs (MI, RI, II, AI, BI, J) and wire them to the outputs of the left 74LS138. Do not wire anything to O0 because that's activated by 000 which won't work for us!
  4. Carefully take your outputs (RO, CO, AO, EO) and wire them to the outputs of the right 74LS138. Remember, do not wire anything to O0!
  5. Now, the 74LS138 outputs are active low, but the ROM outputs were active high. This means you need to swap the wiring on all your existing 74LS04 inverters for the LEDs and control lines to work. Make sure you track which control lines are supposed to be active high vs. active low!
  6. Wire E3 to power and E2 to ground. Connect the E1 on both 138s together, then connect it to the same line as OE on your ROMs. This will ensure that the outputs are disabled when you're in program mode. You can actually take off the 1k pull-up resistors from the previous tutorial at this stage, because the 138s actively drive the lines going to the 74LS04 inverters rather than floating like the ROMs.
At this point, you really need to ensure that the massive rewiring job was successful. Connect 3 jumper wires to A0-A2 and test all the combinations manually. Make sure the correct LED lights up and check with a multimeteoscilloscope that you're getting the right signal at each chip. Catching mistakes at this point will save you a lot of headaches! Now that everything is working, let's finish up:
  1. Connect A0-A2 of the left 74LS138 to the left ROM's A0-A2.
  2. Connect A0-A2 of the right 74LS138 to the right ROM's A0-A2.
  3. Distribute the rest of the control signals across the two ROMs.
Changing the ROM Code
This part is easy. We just need to update all of our #define with the new addresses and program the ROMs again. For clarity that we're not using one-hot encoding anymore, I recommend using hex instead of binary. So instead of #define MI 0b0000000100000000, we can use #define MI 0x0100, #define RI 0x0200, and so on.
Testing
Expanding the control lines required physically rewiring a lot of critical stuff, so small mistakes can creep up and make mysterious errors down the road. Write a program that activates each control line at least once and make sure it works properly! With your assembler and Arduino programmer, this should be trivial.
Bonus: Adding B Register Output
With the additional control lines, don't forget you can now add a BO signal easily which lets you fully use the B register.

Step 3: Add a Stack (Image 1, Image 2)

Adding a stack significantly expands the capability of the CPU. It enables subroutines, recursion, and handling interrupts (with some additional logic). We'll create our stack with an 8-bit stack pointer hard-coded from $0100 to $01FF, just like the 6502.
Wiring up the Stack Pointer
A stack pointer is conceptually similar to a program counter. It stores an address, you can read it and write to it, and it increments. The only difference between a stack pointer and a program counter is that the stack pointer must also decrement. To create our stack pointer, we'll use two 74LS193 4-bit up/down binary counters:
  1. Place a 74LS00 NAND gate, 74LS245 transceiver, and two 74LS193 counters in a row next to your output register. Wire up power and ground.
  2. Wire the the Carry output of the right 193 to the Count Up input of the left 193. Do the same for the Borrow output and Count Down input.
  3. Connect the Clear input between the two 193s and with an active high reset line. The B register has one you can use on its 74LS173s.
  4. Connect the Load input between the two 193s and to a new active low control line called SI on your 74LS138 decoder.
  5. Connect the QA-QD outputs of the lower counter to A8-A5 and the upper counter to A4-A1. Pay special attention because the output are in a weird order (BACD) and you want to make sure the lower A is connected to A8 and the upper A is connected to A4.
  6. Connect the A-D inputs of the lower counter to B8-B5 and the upper counter to B4-B1. Again, the inputs are in a weird order and on both sides of the chip so pay special attention.
  7. Connect the B1-B8 outputs of the 74LS245 transceiver to the bus.
  8. On the 74LS245 transceiver, connect DIR to power (high) and connect OE to a new active low control line called SO on your 74LS138 decoder.
  9. Add 8 LEDs and resistors to the lower part of the 74LS245 transceiver (A1-A8) so you can see what's going on with the stack pointer.
Enabling Increment & Decrement
We've now connected everything but the Count Up and Count Down inputs. The way the 74LS193 works is that if nothing is counting, both inputs are high. If you want to increment, you keep Count Down high and pulse Count Up. To decrement, you do the opposite. We'll use a 74LS00 NAND gate for this:
  1. Take the clock from the 74LS08 AND gate and make it an input into two different NAND gates on the 74LS00.
  2. Take the output from one NAND gate and wire it to the Count Up input on the lower 74LS193 counter. Take the other output and wire it to the Count Down input.
  3. Wire up a new active high control line called SP from your ROM to the NAND gate going into Count Up.
  4. Wire up a new active high control line called SM from your ROM to the NAND gate going into Count Down.
At this point, everything should be working. Your counter should be able to reset, input a value, output a value, and increment/decrement. But the issue is it'll be writing to $0000 to $00FF in the RAM! Let's fix that.
Accessing Higher Memory Addresses
We need the stack to be in a different place in memory than our regular program. The problem is, we only have an 8-bit bus, so how do we tell the RAM we want a higher address? We'll use a special control line to do this:
  1. Wire up an active high line called SA from the 28C16 ROM to A8 on the Cypress CY7C199 RAM.
  2. Add an LED and resistor so you can see when the stack is active.
That's it! Now, whenever we need the stack we can use a combination of the control line and stack pointer to access $0100 to $01FF.
Updating the Instruction Set
All that's left now is to create some instructions that utilize the stack. We'll need to settle some conventions before we begin:
If you want to add a little personal flair to your design, you can change the convention fairly easily. Let's implement push and pop (source code):
  1. Define all your new control lines, such as #define SI 0x0700 and #define SO 0x0005.
  2. Create two new instructions: PSH (1011) and POP (1100).
  3. PSH starts the same as any other for the first two steps: MI|CO and RO|II|CE. The next step is to put the contents of the stack pointer into the address register via MI|SO|SA. Recall that SA is the special control line that tells the memory to access the $01XX bank rather than $00XX.
  4. We then take the contents of AO and write it into the RAM. We can also increment the stack pointer at this stage. All of this is done via: AO|RI|SP|SA, followed by TR.
  5. POP is pretty similar. Start off with MI|CO and RO|II|CE. We then need to take a cycle and decrement the stack pointer with SM. Like with PSH, we then set the address register with MI|SO|SA.
  6. We now just need to output the RAM into our A register with RO|AI|SA and then end the instruction with TR.
  7. Updating the assembler is easy since neither instruction has operands. For example, push is just psh -> 0x0B.
And that's it! Write some programs that take advantage of your new 256 byte stack to make sure everything works as expected.

Step 4: Add Subroutine Instructions (Image)

The last step to complete our stack is to add subroutine instructions. This allows us to write complex programs and paves the way for things like interrupt handling.
Subroutines are like a blend of push/pop instructions and a jump. Basically, when you want to call a subroutine, you save your spot in the program by pushing the program counter onto the stack, then jumping to the subroutine's location in memory. When you're done with the subroutine, you simply pop the program counter value from the stack and jump back into it.
We'll follow 6502 conventions and only save and restore the program counter for subroutines. Other CPUs may choose to save more state, but it's generally left up to the programmer to ensure they're not wiping out states in their subroutines (e.g., push the A register at the start of your subroutine if you're messing with it and restore it before you leave).
Adding an Extra Opcode Line
I've started running low on opcodes at this point. Luckily, we still have two free address lines we can use. To enable 5-bit opcodes, simply wire up the 4Q output of your upper 74LS173 register to A7 of your 28C16 ROM (this assumes your opcodes are at A3-A6).
Updating the ROM Writer
At this point, you simply need to update the Arduino writer to support 32 instructions vs. the current 16. So, for example, UCODE_TEMPLATE[16][8] becomes UCODE_TEMPLATE[32][8] and you fill in the 16 new array elements with nop. The problem is that the Arduino only has so much memory and with the way Ben's code is written to support conditional jumps, it starts to get tight.
I bet the code can be re-written to handle this, but I had a TL866II Plus EEPROM programmer handy from the 6502 build and I felt it would be easier to start using that instead. Converting to a regular C program is really simple (source code):
  1. Copy all the #define, global const arrays (don't forget to expand them from 16 to 32), and void initUCode(). Add #include and #include to the top.
  2. In your traditional int main (void) C function, after initializing with initUCode(), make two arrays: char ucode_upper[2048] and char ucode_lower[2048].
  3. Take your existing loop code that loops through all addresses: for (int address = 0; address < 2048; address++).
  4. Modify instruction to be 5-bit with int instruction = (address & 0b00011111000) >> 3;.
  5. When writing, just write to the arrays like so: ucode_lower[address] = ucode[flags][instruction][step]; and ucode_upper[address] = ucode[flags][instruction][step] >> 8;.
  6. Open a new file with FILE *f = fopen("rom_upper.hex", "wb");, write to it with fwrite(ucode_upper, sizeof(char), sizeof(ucode_upper), f); and close it with fclose(f);. Repeat this with the lower ROM too.
  7. Compile your code using gcc (you can use any C compiler), like so: gcc -Wall makerom.c -o makerom.
Running your program will spit out two binary files with the full contents of each ROM. Writing the file via the TL866II Plus requires minipro and the following command: minipro -p CAT28C16A -w rom_upper.hex.
Adding Subroutine Instructions
At this point, I cleaned up my instruction set layout a bit. I made psh and pop 1000 and 1001, respectively. I then created two new instructions: jsr and rts. These allow us to jump to a subroutine and returns from a subroutine. They're relatively simple:
  1. For jsr, the first three steps are the same as psh: MI|CO, RO|II|CE, MI|SO|SA.
  2. On the next step, instead of AO we use CO to save the program counter to the stack: CO|RI|SP|SA.
  3. We then essentially read the 2nd byte to do a jump and terminate: MI|CO, RO|J.
  4. For rts, the first four steps are the same as pop: MI|CO, RO|II|CE, SM, MI|SO|SA.
  5. On the next step, instead of AI we use J to load the program counter with the contents in stack: RO|J|SA.
  6. We're not done! If we just left this as-is, we'd jump to the 2nd byte of jsr which is not an opcode, but a memory address. All hell would break loose! We need to add a CE step to increment the program counter and then terminate.
Once you update the ROM, you should have fully functioning subroutines with 5-bit opcodes. One great way to test them is to create a recursive program to calculate something--just don't go too deep or you'll end up with a stack overflow!

Conclusion

And that's it! Another successful upgrade of your 8-bit CPU. You now have a very capable machine and toolchain. At this point I would have a bunch of fun with the software aspects. In terms of hardware, there's a number of ways to go from here:
  1. Interrupts. Interrupts are just special subroutines triggered by an external line. You can make one similar to how Ben did conditional jumps. The only added complexity is the need to load/save the flags register since an interrupt can happen at any time and you don't want to destroy the state. Given this would take more than 8 steps, you'd also need to add another line for the step counter (see below).
  2. ROM expansion. At this point, address lines on the ROM are getting tight which limits any expansion possibilities. With the new approach to ROM programming, it's trivial to switch out the 28C16 for the 28C256 that Ben uses in the 6502. These give you 4 additional address lines for flags/interrupts, opcodes, and steps.
  3. LCD output. At this point, adding a 16x2 character LCD like Ben uses in the 6502 is very possible.
  4. Segment/bank register. It's essentially a 2nd memory address register that lets you access 256-byte segments/banks of RAM using bank switching. This lets you take full advantage of the 32K of RAM in the Cypress chip.
  5. Fast increment instructions. Add these to registers by replacing 74LS173s with 74LS193s, allowing you to more quickly increment without going through the ALU. This is used to speed up loops and array operations.
submitted by MironV to beneater [link] [comments]

MAME 0.220

[ Removed by reddit in response to a copyright notice. ]
submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]

what is this i just downloaded (youtube code?)

so this is kinda a wierd story. I was planning to restart my computer. (cant remember why) I spend most of my time watching youtube videos so i had alot of tabs open. So i was watching the videos then deleting the tab but not opening new tabs. So i was down 2 i think 1 it was a pretty long video so i tried to open a youtube home page tab just to look while i listened to the video. And this is a short exerp of what i got.





YouTube











submitted by inhuman7773 to techsupport [link] [comments]

Average True Range  IQ Option trading tutorial for all trader in the world Binary Options SCAMS!!!! TradeRush & Franco - YouTube What Are Binary Options? - YouTube Binary Option Strategies - YouTube HOW TO TRADE BINARY OPTIONS? - Binary Options Strategy With Best Binary Options Brokers Binary Options Scams - Awareness Campaign - YouTube BINÄRE OPTIONEN 60 SEKUNDEN STRATEGIE BEI FINMAX ANWENDEN Binary Options Trading Strategy For Beginners - YouTube

TR Binary Options (TradeRush) has one of the best customer support teams currently available in the binary options industry. TR Binary Options (TradeRush) prides itself on customer support, which is available 24/7 via phone, live chat or email. They have support in over 10 languages. The languages include English, German, Arabic, Spanish, Italian, French, Japanese, Portuguese and Greek. They ... TR Binary Options is definitely at the very top on lists of some of the best binary options brokers around. This broker operates transparently and offers many different features and services to traders. Furthermore, traders can choose between a great number of assets to place trades on. All of these features prove that TR Binary Options is a premium binary options broker. TR Binary Options fomerly called TradeRush is a binary broker founded in 2011. This broker is owned by Cheshire Capital Ltd. Cavell House Stannard Place Crispins Rd, Norwich, NR3 1YE, United Kingdom with a business address at 7th Floor 2 Pinfold Street The Balance SHEFFIELD South Yorkshire S1 2GU United Kingdom . Although trading Binary Options can yield a trader success in the long term, it requires analysis and dedication. This is where new traders often tend to trip up. Without knowing any of the binary options basics they think that trading trading them is a panacea that will solve all of their problems. This is why most people who fall for these typical scams are left with a horrible experience of ... Binary options demo accounts are the best way to try both binary options trading, and specific brokers’ software and platforms – without needing to risk any money. You can get demo accounts at more than one broker, try them out and only deposit real money at the one you find best. It can also be useful to have accounts at more than one broker. For example, payouts for two different assets ... TR Binary Options is a popular binary options broker, and they now offer the latest SpotOption trading platform. They offer the full range of binary option types for trading, including; High Low, Ladder, Pairs, Long Term, Short Term, and One Touch Options. What sets TR apart from other brokers is their focus on being an education broker. This works out well for new traders that want seminars ... Trading binary options in this manner, can help you develop new strategies and become a lot more comfortable with taking calculated risk. Every time I’m working on a new strategy, or trying a new binary options software or signal service, I always use an MT4 binary options demo. Binary MT4 Results Tracking . Another reason why trading binary options in MT4 is effective, is because it allows ... Binary Options have been around for a while now but recently (since 2008) have been a hit among the new traders. They were originally introduced as Digital Options and basically, binary means 2 values and in the case of finance mean up and down. This series will be dedicated to teaching the logistics of Trading Binary Options, the in’s and out’s along with various Binary Options Trading ... Trading binary options may not be suitable for everyone. Trading CFDs carries a high level of risk since leverage can work both to your advantage and disadvantage. As a result, the products offered on this website may not be suitable for all investors because of the risk of losing all of your invested capital. You should never invest money that you cannot afford to lose, and never trade with ... TR Binary Options (TradeRush) - Fragen und Antworten TR Binary Options ist ein Broker für binäre Optionen, der auf den ersten Blick nicht hervorsticht, aber bei genauem Hinsehen durch eine besonders grosse Auswahl an Laufzeiten sehr positiv auffällt. Auch die Rendite von bis zu 500% im High Yield Bereich ist besonders hoch. Die häufigsten Fragen zu TR Binary Options finden Sie hier von uns ...

[index] [15334] [656] [26292] [28028] [20347] [26782] [3211] [6481] [28223] [8977]

Average True Range IQ Option trading tutorial for all trader in the world

Binary options are form of options trading based on a yes or no question. Try binary options today at: https://www.wallstreetsurvivor.com You're either right... Aus meinen Erfahrungen der beste Broker: https://iq-option-erfahrungen-test.de/ BINÄRE OPTIONEN 60 SEKUNDEN STRATEGIE BEI FINMAX ANWENDEN Jetzt risikofre... Please watch: "Tom Arnold Talks About Kinghuman - REALLY????" True! See what Tom Arnold said about me... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5HfBtiQORlw --~-- ht... This channel SUCCESS TRADING TV discusses binary options trading which is very popular in many countries among its binary options trading in usa, delivery trading binary options strategies and ... TV Shows News Live Fashion Learning Spotlight 360° Video ... Binary options profitable strategy - How to make money - Duration: 3 minutes, 2 seconds. 3 views; 2 years ago ; 3:02. Binary options ... Start learning here: http://www.FTSBinaryCurriculum.com This video is part of a new awareness campaign that I'm starting, can't believe I'm actually going to... Binary trading strategy and simple technical analysis for beginners to increase win rate trading 3 - 5 minute binary options signals. Get FX Master Code sign... TR Binary Options the binary options broker offers popular binary options trading service with lots of benefits. Binary option strategy Binary options trading strategy - Learn how to make money ...

http://binaryoptiontrade.twicapgaitran.cf